JWT Revocation

JWT Revocation

Ensuring Secure Access: Understanding the Importance of JWT Revocation


JSON Web Tokens (JWTs) are a widely used method for authenticating and authorizing users in web applications. JWTs are a standardized way of representing claims securely between two parties. JWTs consist of three parts: a header, a payload, and a signature. The payload contains information about the user and is signed using a secret key. Once a user logs in, they receive a JWT that is sent with every subsequent request to the server to prove their identity.

Authentication vs Authorization

Authentication is the process of verifying a user's identity. When a user logs in, the server generates a JWT containing a set of claims that identify the user. The JWT is then sent to the client and stored in local storage or cookies. With each subsequent request, the client includes the JWT in the request header. The server verifies the authenticity of the JWT by checking its signature and decoding the claims to confirm the user's identity. If the JWT is valid, the server can proceed to respond to the request. If the JWT is invalid or has expired, the server will reject the request.

Authorization on the other hand is the process of determining whether a user has the necessary permissions to access a resource. Once a user has been authenticated, the server can use the claims within the JWT to determine what resources the user can access. The claims within a JWT can contain information such as the user's roles, permissions, or other attributes. The server can use this information to make authorization decisions and restrict access to sensitive resources.

How often should a user re-authenticate?

To avoid the need for frequent logins, JWTs can be set to expire after a certain amount of time. When a JWT is close to expiring, the server can issue a new JWT to the client to refresh the authentication. There is a good pattern of using access tokens and refresh tokens with the latter having a longer expiration date.

Access tokens are JWTs that are issued by the server upon successful authentication of a user. Access tokens contain a set of claims that identify the user and grant them access to specific resources. Access tokens have a short lifespan, typically lasting between 5 to 60 minutes. After the access token has expired, the user is required to log in again to obtain a new access token.

Refresh tokens are long-lived tokens that are issued by the server alongside an access token. Refresh tokens are typically valid for several days to several weeks. When an access token expires, the client can use the refresh token to obtain a new access token without requiring the user to log in again. The refresh token is used to authenticate the client to the server, and the server issues a new access token to the client.

But what happens if the long-lived refresh tokens become compromised?

Challenges with JWT

While JWTs provide a convenient way to authenticate users, they also introduce a potential security risk. If a JWT is stolen or compromised, an attacker could use it to impersonate the user and gain access to sensitive data or perform actions on behalf of the user. To mitigate this risk, JWT revocation can be used.

Possible solutions

JWT revocation is the process of invalidating a JWT before its expiration time. A few ideas on how to invalidate a token are discussed below.

Blacklisting and whitelisting

Blacklisting involves maintaining a list of revoked JWTs on the server and rejecting any requests that include a revoked token. It is typically done in situations where a token has been compromised or is no longer valid. For example, if a user logs out of the system, any JWTs associated with that user should be blacklisted to prevent unauthorized access. Similarly, if a user's account has been suspended or deleted, any JWTs associated with that account should be blacklisted to prevent further access.

On the other hand, when JWTs are whitelisted, only the tokens that have been explicitly authorized are considered valid, and any other tokens will be rejected. Whitelisting JWTs is typically done in situations where there is a need to tightly control access to a system. For example, if a particular client or application is the only one authorized to access a particular resource or API, JWTs from any other sources should be rejected. Similarly, if a particular user is only authorized to access certain parts of the system, only JWTs with the appropriate permissions should be allowed.

It's important to note that implementing these techniques can have an impact on system performance. Each request needs to be checked against the blacklist or whitelist, which can add additional overhead to the system. As such, it's important to find a balance between security and performance.

Short-lived tokens

Issue JWTs with a short expiration time, and require users to re-authenticate frequently. But it can be used in very critical applications. The TTL is the amount of time that a JWT is considered valid after it has been issued. By setting a short TTL, the window of opportunity for an attacker to use a stolen or compromised JWT is significantly reduced. One benefit of issuing JWTs with a short TTL is that it reduces the risk of unauthorized access if a token is stolen or compromised. If an attacker steals a JWT with a short TTL, they will have a limited amount of time to use it before it expires. This reduces the risk of an attacker gaining prolonged access to a system or resource.

However, there are also some considerations to keep in mind when issuing JWTs with a short TTL. One potential issue is that it can increase the number of requests that need to be made to issue new tokens. If a JWT has a short TTL, it will expire more frequently, and new tokens will need to be issued more frequently. This can lead to an increased load on the system and may require additional infrastructure to support it.

Another consideration is that short-lived JWTs may not be suitable for all use cases. For example, if a user needs to access a resource continuously for an extended period of time, a short-lived JWT may not be appropriate. In these cases, developers may need to implement a refresh token mechanism to enable users to obtain new JWTs without the need for re-authentication.

When should tokens be revoked?

There may be instances where it's necessary to revoke a JWT token before it expires. Some of these include:

  1. Compromised Tokens: If a JWT token is compromised, it should be revoked immediately. A compromised token could allow an attacker to gain access to sensitive information or perform unauthorized actions on the system. Examples of compromised tokens include tokens that have been stolen, obtained by phishing attacks, or leaked through other means.

  2. Account Deletion or Suspension: If a user's account has been deleted or suspended, any JWT tokens associated with that account should be revoked. This prevents the user from accessing the system or performing any unauthorized actions.

  3. Password Change: If a user changes their password, any existing JWT tokens should be revoked. This ensures that any existing tokens that were obtained using the old password cannot be used to access the system.

  4. Session Timeouts: If a user's session has timed out, any JWT tokens associated with that session should be revoked. This ensures that the user cannot continue to access the system after their session has ended.

  5. Employee Departure: If an employee has left the organization or changed roles, any JWT tokens associated with their previous role should be revoked. This ensures that the employee cannot continue to access the system using their previous credentials.

  6. Suspicious Activity: If suspicious activity is detected on the system, any JWT tokens associated with that activity should be revoked. This could include tokens associated with a particular IP address or user account.


Implementing JWT revocation requires careful consideration of the trade-offs between security and usability. Blacklisting and whitelisting can be effective methods for revocation, but can also introduce performance overhead and require additional server-side storage. Short-lived tokens and refresh tokens can improve security, but may also require more frequent user authentication, which can negatively impact the user experience.

In addition to revocation, other measures should also be taken to secure JWTs. For example, using HTTPS to encrypt all communication between the client and server can prevent man-in-the-middle attacks. Ensuring that JWTs are signed using a strong secret key and that the token payload only contains necessary information can also help prevent token misuse.

In conclusion, JWT revocation is an important security measure that can be used to mitigate the risk of token misuse. The approach used will depend on the specific needs and constraints of the application. Careful consideration of the trade-offs between security and usability is essential when implementing JWT revocation.